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A spring is a mechanical part that uses elasticity to work. Parts made of elastic materials deform under the action of external force, and return to their original shape after removing the external force. Also known as "spring". Generally made of spring steel. The types of springs are complex and diverse. According to their shapes, there are mainly spiral springs, scroll springs, leaf springs, and special-shaped springs.


Stretch formula

F=kx, F is the elastic force, k is the stiffness coefficient (or stubborn coefficient), and x is the length of the spring stretched (or compressed). Example 1: When a spring with a stiffness coefficient of 100N/m is used with a force of 5N, the spring is stretched by 5cm. Example 2: When a spring is subjected to a tensile force of 10N, the total length is 7cm. When subjected to a tensile force of 20N, the total length is 9cm, find the original length and the force when the extension is 3cm.


Structure classification

According to the nature of the force, springs can be divided into extension springs, compression springs, torsion springs and bending springs. According to their shapes, they can be divided into disc springs, ring springs, leaf springs, spiral springs, truncated cone scroll springs and torsion bar springs. According to the production process, it can be divided into cold coil spring and hot coil spring. Ordinary cylindrical springs are the most widely used because they are simple to manufacture and can be made into various types according to the load conditions, and their structure is simple. Generally speaking, the materials for springs should have high elastic limit, fatigue limit, impact toughness and good heat treatment performance. Commonly used are carbon spring steel, alloy spring steel, stainless spring steel, copper alloy, nickel alloy and rubber Wait. There are cold-rolling methods and hot-rolling methods for manufacturing springs. The spring wire diameter less than 8 mm generally uses the cold coil method, and the spring wire diameter greater than 8 mm uses the hot coil method. Some springs need to be subjected to strong pressure or shot peening after they are made to improve the load-bearing capacity of the springs.


Spring can be divided into the following 6 categories

1. Torsion spring is a spring that bears torsional deformation, and its working part is also tightly wound into a spiral. The end structure of the torsion spring is a torsion arm processed into various shapes, not a hook ring. The torsion spring uses the principle of leverage to twist or rotate the flexible and tough elastic material to make it have great mechanical energy.

2. The extension spring is a helical spring that bears axial tension. When not under load, the coils of the tension spring are generally tight and there is no gap.

3. Compression spring is a helical spring that bears axial pressure. The material used in it is mostly circular in cross-section, and it is also rolled with rectangular and multi-stranded steel. The spring is generally of equal pitch. The shape of the compression spring is: cylinder There is a certain gap between the coils of the compression spring, such as conical, conical, convex and concave shapes, and a small amount of non-circular shapes. When subjected to an external load, the spring shrinks and deforms to store deformation energy.

4. Progressive spring. This kind of spring adopts the design of inconsistent thickness and density. The advantage is that when the pressure is not large, the part with the lower elastic coefficient can absorb the fluctuation of the road surface to ensure the comfort of the ride. When the pressure increases to To a certain extent, the thicker part of the spring plays the role of supporting the body, but the disadvantage of this kind of spring is that the control experience is not direct and the accuracy is poor.

5. Linear spring, the thickness and density of the linear spring from top to bottom are unchanged, and the elastic coefficient is a fixed value. This kind of spring design can make the vehicle obtain a more stable and linear dynamic response, which is beneficial to the driver to better control the vehicle. It is mostly used for performance-oriented modified cars and competitive vehicles. The disadvantage of course is that the comfort is affected.

6. Short spring The short spring is shorter and stronger than the original spring. The installation of the short spring can effectively reduce the center of gravity of the vehicle body, reduce the roll generated when cornering, make the cornering more stable and smooth, and improve the vehicle bending. Road maneuverability. The damping setting of the original shock absorber is comfortable, so the short spring and the original shock absorber are not very stable in cooperation. It cannot effectively suppress the rebound and compression of the short spring. When driving on bumpy roads, it will There is an uncomfortable sense of jumping. If things go on like this, the life of the shock absorber will be greatly shortened, and there may be oil leakage. Of course, the above conditions are relatively speaking. There will be no such serious damage in daily driving, and try not to drive violently. After all, the original shock absorber cannot withstand the pressure of high load.

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